Neural Networks are mathematical models that operate in a way similar to how neurons function. Their main usage is to accomplish tasks that are difficult to accomplish with a typical algorithm: generating text, determining objects within pictures, upscaling and generating pictures, etc.
How They Work
The networks are essentially one giant function. This function relies on a large amount of parameters even in small neural networks. These parameters are adjusted in training in order to make the neural network match a set of training data using gradient descent.